Manuscript Preparation

English language editing

Correction of grammar, spelling, punctuation and unclear phrasing. Differing levels of editing may include changes to syntax and sentence flow, such as improvements in word choice and introduction of more concise language (editing does not include writing new content)

Language translation

Translation of academic (or other) text to or from English

Manuscript formatting

Modifications to the original document such as page layout, text formatting, headings, title page, image placement and citations/references to conform with journal formatting guidelines

Artwork services and custom illustration

Adjustment of figures and tables to conform to journal guidelines and improve visual appeal and/or the generation of figures from original data or sketches (e.g. creation of a Table of Contents/graphical abstract)


Light-touch, rapid editing to correct minor errors

Scientific editing

Heavier developmental editing with comments on manuscript argument flow, organization and content

Plagiarism screening

Use of a tool such as iThenticate to identify sections of overlap with published or publicly available material

Image manipulation screening

Examination of artwork (e.g. micrographs, blots, gels) for evidence of inappropriate alterations such as splicing or clone stamping